On the previous page we learned that triglycerides, the main form of fat in the body and in the diet, are made up of a glycerol backbone with three fatty acids attached. As mentioned, fatty acids can differ from each other both in the length of the carbon chain and in the degree of saturation. These properties affect the resulting fat in several ways.
fatty acid chain length
Fatty acids have a variety of chain lengths, generally between four and 24 carbon atoms, with most containing an even number of carbon atoms. When the carbon chain length is shorter, the melting point of the fatty acid becomes lower (like the fats in dairy products) and the fatty acid becomes more liquid. Longer chain lengths tend to produce thicker fats, but the melting point is also affected by the degree of saturation.
fatty acid saturation levels
Fatty acid chains consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded together. The term "saturation" refers to whether the carbon atom in a fatty acid chain is filled (or "saturated") with hydrogen atoms to its capacity. In one,Each carbon is attached to two hydrogen atoms, with single bonds between the carbons.
Alternatively, fatty acids may have sites where hydrogen atoms are absent due to a double bond between carbons (C=C). This is called the point of unsaturation because the carbon is only attached to one hydrogen atom instead of two.have one or more points of establishment or double bonds between carbons. A is a fatty acid with one double bond and oneIt is a fatty acid with two or more double bonds.
Figure 5.12. The structures of a saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. Note the differences in installation sites (C=C double bonds) in some of the fatty acids.
Triglycerides in foods contain a mix of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats., but some foods are better sources of this type of fatty acid than others (Figure 5.13). For example, coconut oil is very high in saturated fat, but still contains some monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Peanut oil is often considered a good source of monounsaturated fat, since this is the predominant fatty acid in the oil, but peanut oil also contains a significant amount of polyunsaturated fat and even some saturated fat.
Figure 5.13.Dietary fats contain a mixture of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Foods are often classified by the predominant type of fatty acids they contain, although foods contain all three types.
Fat sources with a high proportion ofSaturated fats tend to be solid at room temperature.. This is because the lack of double bonds in the carbon chains of saturated fat makes them too straight, so they fit too close together (like a box of toothpicks). Fats that are mostly saturated fat, like butter and coconut oil, are solid at room temperature, just like the visible layers of fat in a strip of bacon or a piece of beef. Eating a diet high in saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of heart disease because such a diet raises blood cholesterol levels, particularly LDL ("bad") cholesterol. (More on that later.)food sources mostly saturated fatThis includes most animal fats (with the exception of poultry and eggs, which are high in unsaturated fat), dairy products, tropical oils (such as coconut and palm oil), cocoa butter, and oils. partially or totally hydrogenated.
Figure 5.14. Examples of foods high in saturated fat, such as meat and dairy
unsaturated fatty acids
Rich sources of fatUnsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room temperature., because C=C double bonds create bends in the carbon chain that make it difficult for fatty acids to stick together. Eating a diet rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats is associated with lower LDL cholesterol and a reduced risk of heart disease.
Dietary sources of mostly monounsaturated fatsinclude nuts and seeds such as almonds, walnuts, cashews, and peanuts; vegetable oils such as canola, olive and peanut oils; and avocados. Poultry and egg fat is predominantly unsaturated and contains more monounsaturated than polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Figure 5.15.Examples of foods high in monounsaturated fats include olive oil, avocados, nuts, and seed butters
Dietary sources predominantly of polyunsaturated fatsinclude vegetable oils (soybean, corn); Fish; Flax; and some nuts such as walnuts and walnuts.
Figure 5.16.Examples of foods high in polyunsaturated fats include fish and nuts.
Omega-3, Omega-6 and essential fatty acids
In addition to the length of the carbon chain and the number of double bonds,Unsaturated fatty acids are also named according to the position of the first double bond relative to methyl (-CH3) or "omega" end of the carbon chain(the far end of the glycerol backbone in a triglyceride). Fatty acids with the first double bond at the third carbon at the omega end are called. Those with the first double bond on the sixth carbon from the omega end are called. (There are also omega-9 fatty acids.)
Figure 5.17. The position of the first C=C double bond determines whether an unsaturated fatty acid is classified as omega-3 or omega-6. Shown here are the two essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (an omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3).
Fatty acids are vital for the normal functioning of all body systems, but the body can synthesize most of the fatty acids it needs. However, there are two fatty acids that the body cannot synthesize:(an omega-6) and (ALA, an omega-3). These are calledsince they must be ingested with food. Other fatty acids are called non-essential fatty acids, but that doesn't mean they aren't important; The classification is based solely on the body's ability to synthesize the fatty acid. ExcellentFood sources of linoleic fatty acidThese include vegetable oils like corn oil and soybean oil, which are commonly found in salad dressings and margarine.Food sources rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)they include nuts, flaxseeds, whole grains, legumes, and dark green leafy vegetables.
Figure 5.18. The chemical structure of essential fatty acids is shown in abbreviated form, with individual carbon and hydrogen atoms not marked.
Linoleic acid and other omega-6 fatty acids are readily consumed by most Americans, since corn and soybean oil are common parts of our food supply. However, sources of ALA and other omega-3 fatty acids are less common in the American diet, and many people could benefit from including more sources in their diets. As an added benefit, ALA-rich whole foods contain other healthy nutrients like fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.
a real oneLack of essential fatty acids.it is rare in developed countries, but can usually occur in people on a very low-fat diet or with inadequate fat intake. Symptoms include dry, scaly skin, poor wound healing, increased susceptibility to infection, and delayed growth in infants and children.1
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are precursors to a large family of important signaling molecules called fatty acids.(Prostaglandins are a type of eicosanoid.) Among the many functions of eicosanoids in the body, one of the most important is the regulation of inflammation. Without these hormone-like molecules, the body would be unable to heal wounds or fight infection when a foreign germ appeared. In addition to their role in the body's immune and inflammatory processes, eicosanoids also help regulate circulation, respiration, and muscle movement.
Eicosanoids derived from omega-6 fatty acids tend to increase blood pressure, blood clotting, immune response, and inflammation. These are necessary functions, but they can be linked to disease when chronically elevated. By contrast, eicosanoids derived from omega-3 fatty acids tend to lower blood pressure, inflammation, and blood clotting, functions that may benefit heart health. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids compete for the same enzymatic pathways in the formation of various eicosanoids, so increasing omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may have anti-inflammatory effects.
Two other omega-3 fatty acids with important health benefits aremi. These long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to help lower triglycerides and blood pressure, reduce inflammation, and prevent blood clots. They also promote the normal growth and development of babies, especially the development of the brain and eyes. These two important omega-3 fatty acids can be synthesized in the body from ALA, i.e.They are not considered essential fatty acids.. However, the conversion rate of ALA to these omega-3 fatty acids is limited, so getting them regularly from the diet is beneficial.Fish, shellfish, fish oils, kelp, and kelp are good sources of EPA and DHA. DHA is also found in breast milk in amounts that depend on maternal intake of DHA sources.
Figure 5.19. EPA and DHA are important but non-essential omega-3 fatty acids that can be synthesized in the body from ALA.
Fish oil and omega-3 supplements are among the most widely used dietary supplements in the United States. Researchers have hypothesized that these supplements may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, be helpful for people with rheumatoid arthritis, and improve brain development in babies when taken during pregnancy or infancy. Some studies have found such benefits from supplements, while others have not. One reason for these conflicting results may be that studies generally do not measure baseline omega-3 levels or the dietary intake of participants, and those who already consume adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids are less likely to benefit from supplementation. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend eating 8 ounces of a variety of seafood per week, and in general, people who meet this recommendation are probably already getting enough omega-3 fatty acids (along with other healthy nutrients found in fish) and you are unlikely to see any additional benefit from taking a fish oil supplement. Some doctors may recommend that people at risk for cardiovascular disease take fish oil or omega-3 supplements, especially if they don't eat fish regularly.2
a word about ittransslices
The carbon-carbon double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid chain can take different forms depending on whether the fatty acid is in acisotransideas When hydrogen atoms are attached to the same side of the carbon chain, it is calledcisFatty acid. Because the hydrogen atoms are on the same side (and repel each other), the carbon chain has a bent structure. Natural fatty acids generally have acisideas
In a, the hydrogen atoms are attached to opposite sides of the carbon chain, resulting in a more linear structure. Differentcisfatty acids, mosttransFatty acids are not found naturally in food, but rather are the result of an industrial process called hydrogenation.it is the process of adding hydrogen to carbon-carbon double bonds, saturating the fatty acid (or less unsaturated in the case of partial hydrogenation).
Hydrogenation produces saturated and trans fatty acids. Trans fats are actually unsaturated fats, but they are in the linear form of saturated fats. (The carbon chains do not bend like natural unsaturated fats.)Trans fats, formed by partial hydrogenation, have an unusual shape that makes their properties and effects on the body similar to those of saturated fats.
Figure 5.20. Comparison of a saturated fatty acid with the cis and trans forms of an unsaturated fatty acid.
Hydrogenation was developed to turn oils semi-solids at room temperature, allowing the production of margarines and shortening spreads from cheap ingredients like corn oil. Hydrogenation also makes oils more stable and less likely to go rancid, which is why fast-food restaurants preferred partially hydrogenated oils for frying, and manufacturers of processed baked goods like crackers and potato chips found that their products lasted longer. And because trans fats are not saturated, nutritionists and medical professionals believe they are a healthier alternative to saturated fats.
But by the 1990s, evidence was mounting that trans fats are unhealthy, far worse than saturated fats. as saturated fatTrans fats raise LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, but they also have the effect of lowering HDL (“good”) cholesterol.and increase inflammatory processes in the body. The researchers found that eating trans fat, even in small amounts (1 to 3 percent of total energy intake), was associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease. They estimated that by removing industrial trans fat from the food supply, up to 19% of heart attacks in the US could be prevented at the time, which is the equivalent of preventing 228,000 heart attacks.3
In 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required food companies to include information about trans fats in the nutrition facts on food labels to keep consumers informed about their consumption of these fats. This has led the food industry to largely eliminate semi-hydrogenated oils from their products, often replacing them with palm oil and coconut oil (both of which are high in saturated fat and can cause heart disease). In 2013, the FDA ruled that trans fats were no longer considered safe in the food supply, and in 2015 the agency issued a ruling ordering that manufactured trans fats should no longer be included in the US food supply. A one-year extension was granted in 2018 and food produced before that date was given time to work on the food supply. The final ruling calls for all manufactured trans fats to be phased out of the US food supply by 2021.4
- Lindshield, B. L. Kansas State University Human Nutrition (FNDH 400) Flexbook.goo.gl/vOAnR, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
- Food Science and Human Nutrition Program at the University of Hawaii at Manoa,"Digestion and absorption of lipids“CC-BY-NC 4.0
- 1Oregon State University. (2014, April 28). essential fatty acids. Retrieved on October 17, 2019 from the Linus Pauling Institute website:https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids
- 2National Institute of Health. Office of Dietary Supplements - Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Retrieved on October 17, 2019 fromhttps://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/
- 3Mozaffarian, D., Katan, M.B., Ascherio, A., Stampfer, M.J. and Willett, W.C. (2006). Trans fats and cardiovascular disease.The new english journal of medicine,354(15), 1601-1613.https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra054035
- 4Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2018, May 18). Final determination on partially hydrogenated oils. recovered fromhttps://www.fda.gov/food/food-additives-petitions/final-determination-regarding-partially-hydrogenated-oils-removing-trans-fat
Author of the photo:
- Figure 5.12."Structures of a saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat"by Allison Calabrese is licensed underCC POR 4.0
- Figure 5.13."fatty acid composition"of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is in thepublic domain
- Figure 5.14. "various raw meats' by Benjamin Ashton is in thepublic domain, CC0;"Butter"Vonhafer40is licensed underCC POR 2.0;"Beef"VonTarynis licensed underCC BY-SA 2.0
- Figure 5.15. "Clear Glass Cruet Bottle“ by Roberta Sorge is runningpublic domain, CC0;“Fruit + vegetable toast”Vonshe.oris licensed underCC POR 2.0
- Figure 5.16.”raw fish meat on brown cutting boardNot by Caroline Atwoodpublic domain, CC0; "walnuts“ by Felix Mittermeier is in thepublic domain, CC0
- Figure 5.17"Structures of a saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat"by Allison Calabrese is licensed underCC POR 4.0
- Figure 5.18."Alpha-Linolenic Acid"it's notpublic domain;"linoleic acid"it's notpublic domain
- Figure 5.19."Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)"VonMinutemenit's notpublic domain;"Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)"VonMinutemenit's notpublic domain
- Figure 5.20."Structures of saturated, unsaturated, cis and trans fatty acids"by Allison Calabrese is licensed underCC POR 4.0
What are the scientific method of identifying food nutrients in our diet? ›
Nutritional scientists discover the health effects of food and its nutrients by first making an observation. Once observations are made, they come up with a hypothesis, test their hypothesis, and then interpret the results.When was Nutrition science and Everyday Application published? › What is an example of a nutrition hypothesis? ›
One example of a nutrition hypothesis that has been investigated using observational studies is that eating a Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. (A Mediterranean diet focuses on whole grains, fruits and vegetables, beans and other legumes, nuts, olive oil, herbs, and spices.Is the scientific method an important part of evidence based approach to designing nutritional guidelines? ›
Evidence-Based Approach to Nutrition
Although a lengthy process, the scientific method is a productive way to define essential nutrients and determine their ability to promote health and prevent disease. The scientific method is part of the overall evidence-based approach to designing nutritional guidelines.
An Example of the Scientific Method
Your toaster fails to toast the bread. The observation you make from this problem is that your toaster won't toast. The question, in this case, is, “Why isn't my toaster working?” The hypothesis should be a potential explanation or answer to the question.
So started William Banting's “Letter on Corpulence,” likely the first diet book ever published. Banting, an overweight undertaker, published the book in 1864 to espouse his success after replacing an excessive intake of bread, sugar and potatoes with mostly meat, fish and vegetables.Who approved nutrition facts? ›
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has updated the Nutrition Facts label on packaged foods and drinks. FDA is requiring changes to the Nutrition Facts label based on updated scientific information, new nutrition research, and input from the public.How many nutrition apps are there? ›
A total of 86 diet and nutrition apps were identified.What are the 3 main hypothesis? ›
Types of hypothesis are: Simple hypothesis. Complex hypothesis. Directional hypothesis.What is a good example of a scientific hypothesis? ›
For example, a scientist can form a hypothesis that a certain type of tomato is red. During research, the scientist then finds that each tomato of this type is red. Though his findings confirm his hypothesis, there may be a tomato of that type somewhere in the world that isn't red.
Can you give me an example of hypothesis? ›
Example: Hypothesis Daily exposure to the sun leads to increased levels of happiness. In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause. The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect.Which do you think is the most important step in scientific method Why? ›
The experiment is one of the most important steps in the scientific method, as it is used to prove a hypothesis right or wrong, and to formulate scientific theories.What are the most important steps of the scientific method? ›
- Define a Question to Investigate. As scientists conduct their research, they make observations and collect data. ...
- 2. Make Predictions. Based on their research and observations, scientists will often come up with a hypothesis. ...
- Gather Data. ...
- Analyze the Data. ...
- Draw Conclusions.
One of the most important features of the scientific method is its repeatability. The experiments performed to prove a working hypothesis must clearly record all details so that others may replicate them and eventually allow the hypothesis to become widely accepted.What is the importance of scientific method in our daily life essay? ›
It provides an objective, standardized approach to conducting experiments and, in doing so, improves their results. By using a standardized approach in their investigations, scientists can feel confident that they will stick to the facts and limit the influence of personal, preconceived notions.Why is it important to follow the scientific method in solving both scientific and everyday life problems? ›
It is too easy to make assumptions, to believe what you want to believe, to ignore data that conflict with what you think. And as human beings, scientists can be all too guilty of these errors. The scientific method is a way to prevent these mistakes. It doesn't always work, but it demonstrably has had some successes.What is a scientific problem example? ›
But the problem of trying to figure out how fast a population of rabbits can grow is a scientific problem as you can conduct an experiment on a population of rabbits to observe and record just how fast they reproduce. You can then use your information and any patterns that you find to find your answer.What is the application of scientific method? ›
In a typical application of the scientific method, a researcher develops a hypothesis, tests it through various means, and then modifies the hypothesis on the basis of the outcome of the tests and experiments.What is scientific method today? ›
The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results.Do 97% of people who lose weight gain it back? ›
In reality, 97 percent of dieters regain everything they lost and then some within three years. Obesity research fails to reflect this truth because it rarely follows people for more than 18 months. This makes most weight-loss studies disingenuous at best and downright deceptive at worst.
How did ancient people lose weight? ›
For those who wanted to take stricter measures, he suggested that they eat only once a day, take no baths, sleep on a hard bed and "walk naked as long as possible". The Romans seem to have had a similar hard-work attitude to losing weight - the encyclopaedist Aulus Cornelius Celsus (c.What was the name of Optavia before? ›
Once known as Medifast, Optavia is a diet that promises weight loss with a very structured diet made up of mostly prepackaged Optavia-branded meals and snacks.Did the FDA approve Herbalife? ›
The FDA does not approve foods, non-drug cosmetics, or dietary supplements for safety or effectiveness.What is the 5 ingredient rule? ›
Stick to the 5 ingredient rule: Choose foods with less than 5 ingredients and all things you recognize and know are real food, such as tomatoes, water, or salt. Or if there are more than 5, make sure they're all food or spices. Buy only packaged foods with ingredients you can pronounce or recognize.What is the 5 20 rule? ›
Though not an end-all test, a quick way to read the percent daily values is to use the 5/20 rule. This says that if the %DV is less than 5% there is a low amount of this nutrient, while if the %DV is greater than 20% there is a high amount of this nutrient.What is the most accurate nutrition app? ›
- Best overall nutrition app: MyPlate Calorie Counter.
- Best meal planning app: PlateJoy.
- Best food tracking app: MyFitnessPal.
- Best healthy recipe app: Yummly Recipes & Cooking Tools.
- Best weight loss app: Lifesum: Healthy Eating.
- Best mindful eating app: Ate Food Journal.
- WW app.
- Fitbit app.
- Lose It! App.
When it comes to nutrition, there are macronutrients and micronutrients. The “big 3” macronutrients (macros) are fats, carbohydrates and protein.What are the 2 main sources of hypothesis? ›
- Previous study.
- Personal experience.
- Thinking and imagination.
- Scientific theory.
There are basically two types, namely, null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. A research generally starts with a problem. Next, these hypotheses provide the researcher with some specific restatements and clarifications of the research problem.
What is hypothesis in simple words? ›
A hypothesis is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.What are 3 examples of a scientific theory? ›
Evolution, plate tectonics, and the Big Bang are all examples of scientific theories.How do you write a good hypothesis for a science project? ›
- Predicts the relationship and outcome.
- Simple and concise – avoid wordiness.
- Clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers' knowledge.
- Observable and testable results.
- Relevant and specific to the research question or problem.
- "Students who eat breakfast will perform better on a math exam than students who do not eat breakfast."
- Complex hypothesis: "Students who experience test anxiety before an English exam will get lower scores than students who do not experience test anxiety."
Many academicians discourage the use of first person personal pronouns like "I", "me" and "mine", "myself" and "my"" in scientific papers.What is the hardest step in scientific method? ›
The Hardest And Most Important Part Of The Scientific Method: Staying Objective.What is the most difficult part of the scientific method? ›
The next step in the scientific method is EXPERIMENTATION, or hypothesis testing. This is the hardest part of the scientific method (but usually the most fun). The scientists must design and conduct one or several experiments to test their hypothesis.What is considered the most important part of the scientific method? ›
Problem, Purpose, or Research Question: The problem or research question is the single most important part of the scientific method. Every part of your project is done to answer this question.Which definition best explains science? ›
Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.What does scientific method depend on? ›
The scientific method depends upon increasingly sophisticated characterizations of the subjects of investigation. (The subjects can also be called unsolved problems or the unknowns.)
What is good scientific method? ›
Ask a question. Form a hypothesis, or testable explanation. Make a prediction based on the hypothesis. Test the prediction.What is an example of the everyday scientific method? ›
An Example of the Scientific Method
Your toaster fails to toast the bread. The observation you make from this problem is that your toaster won't toast. The question, in this case, is, “Why isn't my toaster working?” The hypothesis should be a potential explanation or answer to the question.
The scientific method is used unconsciously by many people on a daily basis, for tasks such as cooking and budgeting. The same elements present in traditional scientific inquiry are present in these everyday examples.What is the scientific method quizlet nutrition? ›
The scientific method is a set of instructions for nutrition researchers to develop and test new knowledge. Which sequence of events correctly demonstrates the use of the scientific method to explain string beans changing color when cooked?Which method is the best method for nutritional assessment? ›
1. Anthropometric Nutritional Assessment. Anthropometric measurements are noninvasive quantitative measurements of the body that provide valuable assessments of the nutritional status of children and adults. Typically, it involves the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the body.What are the main methods to measure nutritional status? ›
Nutritional status is assessed using anthropometric and biochemical tests, among others. Anthropometric measurements used to determine nutritional status include the assessment of the physiological status of the body based on its height and weight.What is the scientific method answers? ›
The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results.What are the 5 steps of the scientific method nutrition? ›
An organized process of inquiry used in nutritional science, and every other science; made up of a cyclical process of steps including observation/question, hypothesis, experiment, analysis, and conclusion.Why is it called scientific method? ›
The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out. As in other areas of inquiry, science (through the scientific method) can build on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated understanding of its topics of study over time. This model can be seen to underlie the scientific revolution.What is the most accurate form of nutritional assessment? ›
The most common methods used in nutrition research are the diet record, 24HR, and FFQ. Each method has benefits and drawbacks; however, the 24HR is the most accurate means to assess food and nutrient intake at present.
What is the best test for malnutrition? ›
The nutrition-focused physical examination (NFPE) is an essential component for diagnosing malnutrition. Focusing on general characteristics such as edema, muscle wasting and subcutaneous fat loss to specific micronutrient related deficiencies, the NFPE is very sensitive for assessing nutritional status.What are 3 limitations of nutritional assessment? ›
Some limitations of nutrition screening include not validating tools for specific patient populations, inaccurate information, changes to a patient's condition during hospitalization, and the use of invalidated laboratory values.What are the 3 main purpose of nutritional assessment? ›
The purpose of nutritional assessment, however, is to define a patient's nutritional status, to define clinically relevant malnutrition and to monitor changes in nutritional status.What are the 4 types of nutritional assessments? ›
What are the different types of nutrition assessment? An easy way to remember types of nutrition assessment is ABCD: Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and dietary.What is the best indicator of nutritional status? ›
The indicators stunting, wasting, overweight and underweight are used to measure nutritional imbalance; such imbalance results in either undernutrition (assessed from stunting, wasting and underweight) or overweight.